Search This Blog

Wednesday, December 28, 2016

Planting Corn in Cereal Rye Cover Crop

We have seen issues with planting corn into cereal rye cover crops.  I have always thought that killing the cereal rye early could help.  Researchers at Iowa State University have found that cereal rye supports the growth of microbes that can be damaging to corn seedlings.  They found that earlier kills worked better.  They also suggest that nitrogen at planting time can help promote healthier corn plants.  We have also found that with low soil test sulfur, rye can create a sulfur deficiency.  Sulfur at planting is also a good idea.  See what they say about reducing the risk of corn seedling disease and yield loss after cereal rye.

Friday, December 16, 2016

Happy Birthday Dad

I went to see my Dad yesterday.  His 88th birthday is Sunday and with dicey winter weather in the forecast for later in the week, yesterday was the day to take his gift.  Dad is in good health both mentally and physically.  He was proud to have passed his annual driver's test. He lives in town, but his mobility is important to him because he goes to see Mom in the nursing home almost every day and then drives out to the farm to putter about.  Dad has always been a fan of 2 cylinder John Deere's.  Grandpa bought  a Model AR in 1941 and that tractor is still on the farm.  The one below is a Model A that was built in 1937 or 38.  It was given to him with a broken pedestal.  He welded and braced the pedestal and at some point a year or 2 later we put in new rings and painted it.  The loader was built by a neighbor.  The tractor still runs and it starts by cranking the flywheel.  Dad is still better than anyone at starting it.

Thursday, December 15, 2016

Controlling Diseases in Wheat

We grow the Soft Red Winter varieties of wheat in our area.  The crop was more popular in the past, but wheat is still the third largest acreage in Illinois.  In the southern part of the state crop rotations that include wheat are the most profitable assuming that double crop soybeans are also in the mix.  At this time of year it is easy to look across the wheat field and think that it looks great.  A wet spell in the spring can change all that.  University of Nebraska put out this article about Controlling Diseases in Wheat. Published in No-Till Farmer

Monday, December 12, 2016

Iowa Road Trip

We made a road trip to Pella Iowa this weekend.  Crops appeared to be all harvested.  Very little tillage is don on the rolling hills in Iowa.  This is a contrast to Illinois.  Snow was falling in Iowa off and on, but never amounted to much, except to make roads slippery.

Friday, December 9, 2016

Water Quality Issues

In the business of nutrient management, maintaining productive nutrient levels in the soil has been a driving force.  In the modern day world, we need to be more sensitive to the effects of fertilizer on water quality.  High soil test levels of phosphorous can pollute our water and contribute to declining water quality in our rivers lakes and streams.  Keeping soil test levels around ideal will help minimze the loss of phosphorous.  Ideal P1 levels are 25 to 30 ppm.  Ideal Mehlich 3 levels are 30 to 35 ppm.  Multiply the listed levels by 2 if your reports come in pounds per acre.  higher levels may be acceptable on high pH soils.

Nitrogen management is more challenging, although most farms can make improvelents on their nitrogen management as well.  Nitrogen testing, split applications and cutting back on overall rates are all practices that should be looked into. With low crop prices, using the N RATE CALCULATOR will help you determine the rate of return on you nitrogen application and keep nitrogen applications at environmentally friendly levels.  In season soil tests can help you factor in weather during the growing season.  Nitrogen modelling such as is done by Climate Corp may also be useful. Cover crops can convert soil nitrogen into a more stable form for release during the growing season. The Illinois Nutrient Loss Reduction Strategy is saying, don't stand pat on managing your nutrients.  Do something.  Why?  The EPA has found that 4 in 10 Lakes Have Excessive Nitrogen or Phosphorus Levels.   The days of multiplying your expect yield by 1.2 to get your nitrogen rate are over.  You should be giving it more thought than that.

Tuesday, December 6, 2016

Illinois River Traffic

I crossed the draw bridge at Florence today.  I was already on the bridge when lights started flashing.  I stopped to see what was coming.  The only boat I saw was the little one in the top picture.  I looked back upstream again and a tow was peeking around the bend.  ow are few of the photos I got as the tow approached the bridge and then moved under it.  The towboat was the Lydia E Cambell.  She is an Illinois river boat with a pilot house that moves up and down.  The barges were tanker barges and coal barges.
Small Boat
Around the bend 

Tankers and Coal

Under the Bridge

Sunday, December 4, 2016

Should You use Starter Fertilizer?

I have this discussion with clients regularly.  They want to know if they should use starter fertilizer. They have tried starter and it looks like the corn is getting head start on corn without starter.  The question is and always has been whether or not pretty corn means more money.  I have seen studies on both sides of the issue.  A recent study out of Minnesota Finds that In-Furrow Starter Fertilizer May Not Pay Off. They found what I have seen often in starter fertilizer studies.  It helps sometimes under very specific circumstances.  One of those circumstances is where soil test P levels are very low.  In most other circumstances, the extra green in the spring just pays for itself or costs money.  Another consderation in my opinion is whether or not the producer has the time to mess with starter.  I have seen that those who mess with starter can get a payoff in maintaining over all fertility.  If it works on your operation, go for it, but if not, don't sweat it

Tuesday, November 29, 2016

Carbon Nitrogen Ratios

Carbon Nitrogen Ratios were studied at University of Nebraska to see how much nitrogen is contributed to the next year's crop.  It is interesting that in looking at Carbon Nitrogen Ratios in cover crops that it appears that a high tonnage crop like cereal rye may actually contribute more nitrogen than a legume crop that fixes nitrogen from the air.  I would like to do some in season nitrogen testing to confirm this, but it looks interesting enough to pass along for consideration.

Sunday, November 27, 2016

Gluten Free

In the passed I have ranted that some stores seem to be using the Gluten Free label on foods that generally do not contain gluten such as meat, eggs, and potatoes.  Today I was shopping at Dierburg's in Edwardsville and found they have added an entire aisle of gluten free products.  In the interest of fair recognition, this aisle would actually be helpful to those who desire or need to follow  a gluten free diet.  This aisle contained products such as bread, pasta, cereal, and baked goods that traditionally contain gluten.  Seems like a fair use of the label.

Tuesday, November 22, 2016

Interesting area today

I was surrounded by industrial and residential land where I was working today. As I headed to one fields, I noticed the sign about remote control locomotives.  As I was working, a short train went by.  There was a caboose in the forward position, and it was occupied.  The locomotive was in the middle and appeared to be empty.  The industry sort of isolated the area and served as a sanctuary for the deer who were not very wary of me at all. They are protected from hunting.

Remote Controlled Locomotive
Tame Whitetails?

Sunday, November 20, 2016

More Flooding Information

One of the highlights of last weekend's trip to the "real" southern Illinois was a stop at the Len Small Levee break from 2016.  The break remains un-repaired and more flooding could cut off up to 12 miles of Mississippi River channel. Check out the University of Illinois Press Release for more information.

Thursday, November 17, 2016

Field Activity

Weather has been good for a while now, so there is lots of field activity.  I saw someone today using a ditcher with survey grad GPS.  I am sure I could still find corn and soybeans to harvest, but harvest is 99% complete.  Lots of people were doing tillage today.  Also lots of people applying anhydrous ammonia.  Jut a reminder that it is surprising when fall applied nitrogen is reduced to half by planting time.  I saw several people applying fall weed control measures today too.

Wednesday, November 16, 2016

Weekend Trip

We went to Cape Girardeau, MO this weekend for the annual Illinois Soil Classifiers Fall Tour.  Friday night discussion was lead by Dr. Ken Olson who has become an expert on flooding and Flood damages to cropland.  Dr. Olson has recently published a book on Managing Mississippi and Ohio  River Landscapes.  Doctor Olson's book is very readable and he gives a good understanding of flooding issues.  The book has over 200 illustration to improve the reader's understanding of the issues.

On Saturday we toured an un-repaired levee Break on the Len Small Levee District levee.  We also looked at the Mississippi River at Thebes and discussed the effects of the narrow valley at that point.  Other stops later in the day include a new lock and dam under construction on the Ohio River and finally a look at the confluence of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers.  Check out Dr. Olson's book at the link above.
Bruce Putman, Bill Kreznor and Ken Olson

Olmstead Lock and Dam

Mississippi and Ohio Confluence

Tuesday, November 15, 2016

Colorful Bee Hive

I spotted the colorful bee hive below.  Usually they are white.   It was too cool for the bees.

Thursday, November 10, 2016

Soil Sampling Strategies

I have written several times about why we use zone sampling to give our customers advice on nutrient management.  The biggest weakness of a grid sample is that it is tied to a spot and extrapolated.  Zones are tied to soil features, yields, topography and other pertinent information.
Sampling is across the whole zone.  The article in No-Till Farmer Talks about the two strategies and defines them very well.

Tuesday, November 8, 2016

Fall Nitrogen Management

Suppliers and farmers alike seem to like the idea of fall nitrogen application.  I saw a post yesterday that soil temperatures in Mid-Illinois are at 50 degrees making fall nitrogen application seem like  a good idea.  Keep in mind that soil temperatures can vary as much as 10 degrees depending on bare soil or covered soil.  I suggest checking each field at a 4 inch depth before applying.  The Illinois Water Survey posts temperatures daily.

Last fall November soil temperatures were favorable for applying nitrogen.  Then in December we warmed up.  by April, I started nitrogen testing and found that most people had lost half of their fall applied nitrogen.  If you insist on fall application, be sure to use nitrification inhibitors.  Split applications are a better idea than applying all at once.

No-till Farmer published a list out of Illinois of 10 Practices for cutting tile nitrate loads.  Tile is only one way that nitrogen is lost.

Sunday, November 6, 2016

Turbo-Till Seeder

Seeding cover crops effectively can be an issue.  I have seen the results from the Turbo-till Seeder with a seeding attachment.  Stands are nice and even with good emergence.  It seems to work better than vertical tillage after broadcasting seed.

Friday, November 4, 2016

Iowa Cover Crops

My Iowa reporter sent the photographs below of cover crops in Iowa.

Cereal Rye

Cereal Rye

Oats and Radish

Oats and Radish

Sunday, October 30, 2016

Monroe County Wheat

Monroe County has traditional been a leading wheat producing county in IL.  Nice Looking wheat below near Meramec.

Friday, October 28, 2016

More Fall Weed Control

My advice would be to start your weed control program for next year now.  Aaron Hagar offers fall weed control advice in this Bulletin.

Friday, October 21, 2016

Wheat Condition

Nice looking wheat in Bond County.  It looks like maybe a little more is being planted this year.  The good looking double crop soybeans may be influencing that decision.

Monday, October 10, 2016

Fall Weed Control

I have written several times on fall weed  control.  Early on, I failed to see the value.  With resistant weeds and heavy pressure, fall weed control is making sense to me at this point.  One fall weed control technique is to use fall applied herbicide.  A residual herbicide will not only supress the winter annuals, but i will also give some early spring control.  Use herbicides if you have n ot planned on cover crops.

The second technique of course it to use cover crops.  Weed suppression will last well into the growing season, and I have seen very good results.  You may still be able to get cereal rye seed to sow on fields that are going to soybeans next spring.  If this is your first time to use cover crops, I do not recommend planting corn into cereal rye.  I have one customer who is planning to do so, but he has done a lot of research on the subject before taking the plunge.

No-till Farmer says Weed Control and Soil Health go Hand in Hand.  

Thursday, October 6, 2016

Cutting Ruts

I sampled a very wet field.  The farmer got a neighbor with duals to finish the field.  Ruts were almost as bad with duals.  Needed tracks.

Wednesday, October 5, 2016

Harvest Continues

After something of a damp weekend, there was rain in the forecast once again today.  We were lucky to have only sprinkles.  It looked like more on radar, but rain was not hitting the ground.  People were harvesting both corn and soybeans.  Beans had some green stems, but grain is dry.

Tuesday, October 4, 2016

Soil Judging

Janette Porter and I served as the scoring officials for the Section 11 FFA soil judging cotest held in Brown County today.  I always enjoy the chance to  interact with future agriculturalists.  It was kind of a  long drive, but it is also a good chance to look at soils in pits rather than a probe core.  I am not sure how long this activity has been a part of FFA, but I attended my first contest in 1969.  I have been involved in soil judging off and on ever since.  I can't say how many contests.  Some years there were many and some years one, and some years none.
Practice Pit

Wednesday, September 28, 2016

Wayne County Visit

We visited Wayne County today to do aseptic tank evaluation.  Lots of soybeans still have leaves, and soybean fields seemed to outnumber corn 2:1.  I suppose some of them are double crop.   2007 Census of Agriculture says they are in the top 20 counties in soybean production.

Soil was fairly moist considering were were in a soybean field.

Tuesday, September 27, 2016

Avoid Compaction

We went into harvest with wetter than normal soils.  Driving on wet soils should be avoid if possible. This No-Till Farmer article on Minimizing Soil Compaction During Harvest is timely.  It is short but thorough.

Monday, September 26, 2016

Eminent Domain

Eminent domain is  a legal process by which land may be taken for the greater public good.  Although farm groups generally oppose eminent domain, it is a power that our governments have in order to build such projects as roads schools and airports.  In Illinois at least. farmers sometime have the ability to use  neighbor's land to complete a drainage project.  Of course, all this taking of land also requires due process in courts before the entity shows up to claim the land.  Eminent domain is also sometimes used to help private companies such as railroads and pipelines.  In August, Prairie Farmer explained, What is Eminent Domain.  Be sure to read page two, also.

Sunday, September 25, 2016

Combines Running

There were lots of combines in the field in Monroe County yesterday.  Everyone was harvesting corn.  

Saturday, September 24, 2016

Soybean Harvest

I went to Pike County to do a septic evaluation.  On my way home I had to stop in Springfield.  The photo below is south of Springfield with the city clearly in the background.  Several fields of soybeans were harvested or being harvested yesterday.
Soybean Harvest.

Thursday, September 22, 2016

Veterinary Feed Directive

The Veterinary Feed Directive becomes law on January 1. It means that livestock producers will need a prescription for medications in food and water.  This means that if you  use medications, but don't have veterinarian you need to get one by the end of the year..  A veterinarian in Prairie Farmer says the law is Good For Everyone.  

Tuesday, September 20, 2016

I-55 Road Trip

I had business in Bloomington today.  Corn Harvest was off to a good start between Raymond and Springfield.  North of Springfield, we did not see many fields harvested.  On the way home, harvest seemed to be starting North of Springfield as well.  The combine below is slightly south of Pawnee.

Saturday, September 17, 2016

Monsanto - Bayer Merger

The seed and chemical industry continues to consolidate.  I am not sure what this means for farmers or consumers in the long run.  Both companies are rather large already.  It will also be interesting to see if negative publicity continues.  We hear that the North American headquarters will continue to be in St. Louis.  Stock holders of both companies await decisions of regulators.  St. Louis Post-Dispatch thinks Bayer got a bargain.

Friday, September 16, 2016

Herbicides and Cover Crops

Cover Crops are a great way to improve your soil health and enhance your weed control.  Issues with using cover crops include the ability to plant them in a timely manner and the ability to get a reasonable stand.  One of the factors standing in the way of a good stand is what residual herbicide have you used on the current crop.  No-till Farmer writes about Corn and Soybean Herbicides and Rotation to Cover Crops .  They say that for most herbicides, you should not have a problem.

Wednesday, September 14, 2016

Floodplain Compliance

Last Winter's flooding in West Alton was serious enough that a number of structures were substantially damaged.  That means that damages exceeded 50% of the value of the structure.  The four homes below are being elevated in order to comply with floodplain management requirements.  The first step is to jack them up and rest them on cribbing.  Home owners who have flood insurance can receive  a payment to help offset the cost of the elevation.  That is called an increased cost of compliance payment.   I know two families that had paid for elevation before the flood out of their own pocket. The good news for them, is that they did not have to deal with the damages last winter.

Tuesday, September 13, 2016

Harvest Progress

I went to West Alton yesterday to deliver some Variable Rate prescriptions.  Also went to Fairview Heights on Sunday.  Corn harvest is started, but most people are still waiting for nature to do the drying.  The weekend rain also slowed things down.  I could see standing water in some of the fields that were already harvested.

Monday, September 12, 2016

Folding Corn Head

Drago demonstrated the 12 row folding corn head at this year's Farm Progress Show.  The advantage is being able to drive down the road without loading the head on a cart.  John Deere has an 8 row folding header available.

Friday, September 9, 2016

Rainy Weather

The last 2 days have been very rainy.  Harvest is likely delayed through the weekend.  When fields are dry enough, I expect to see lots of combines going.

Thursday, September 8, 2016


This my last feature on the John Deere tour.  The sprayer below has a 120 foot span.  It is equipped with nozzle bodies like the one below.  The body supports 5 different nozzle types.  The can be changed by switch from the cab.  I saw this demonstrated at Saale Farm and Grain Plot tour.  On a long boom, this must be a huge time saving.  With all the nozzle variation needed for various crop protectant formulations, this is an important feature.  I am not sure how much automatic shutoff control there is on the sprayers I saw.  John Deere was touting their Exact Apply system which controls each nozzle individually.  I have no idea if they are the only ones with this setup.  
120 foot sprayer

Multi Tip Nozzle Body 

Tuesday, September 6, 2016

Corn Harvest

Last week on my way to Monticello, I passed one elevator that was still moving old corn to open up the storage for the upcoming harvest.  Also, below is the first harvested field I have seen in Montgomery County.  I have not headed south, but I know dairy farmers in bond county are harvesting silage.  Probably 75% of the corn in my area has black layered, but most farmers are delaying harvest to take advantage of natural drying.  With $3 corn, cost control seems to be a good idea, but it needs to be balanced with harvest loss caused by delay.

Early corn along 1-55 at Edwardsville is harvested.  No yield report.  One farmer in St. Clair County reported in the 170's.

Phantom yield loss is something to considered along with stalk condition in deciding when to start harvesting.  The article does some math for you to help you decide.  Phantom yield loss may not be as costly with lower priced corn.
Hauling Old Corn

Montgomery County Harvest started

Monday, September 5, 2016

Labor Day in Witt

Labor Day in Witt has become a tradition for us.  Lots of people turn out to march in the Parade.  There were 3 bands, 4 unions, hoards of politicians, and assorted local businesses and church groups.  The Lion's Club serves the best fish and corn dogs.  Funnel cakes are obligatory too.  The Ford Model A from 1929 was my favorite car and I thought the Allis Chalmers D-19 below was one of the best looking tractors.  There were about 10 to choose from.

Ford A

Allis Chalmers D-19

Friday, September 2, 2016

Soil Health Partners

Soil Health Partnership is a farmer led movement to promote use of cover crops.  Yesterday on the last day of the Farm Progress Show in Boone IA, the corporate sponsors announced a committeemen of $4 Million over the coming years to support the group.  Their goals include establishing research protocols to support cover crops.

Thursday, September 1, 2016

John Deere Data Management

One of the discussion items at the John Deere Media Day was their unveiling of their data collaboration effort.  They are trying to make their data management tools available across many platforms.  This seems to be a switch from APEX which seemed to make collaboration nearly impossible, but I can't say because i have not tried it out.  You can see that Fieldview is involved in the John Deere effort, but they are also trying to come up with their own system.  Putting all your data in one place is a big step, however, at least one participant expressed concern about cloud data being hacked.

Wednesday, August 31, 2016

John Deere Factory Tour

About a month ago, I was flattered by an invitation to attend John Deere's Media tour prior to the Farm Progress show.  I decided to accept the invitation thinking I might learn something valuable to my customers and readers.  I am not going to tell you to only buy John Deere.  I do understand that they were putting their best foot forward to impress the ag media in attendance.

We started off the day with a lurch followed by a factory tour.  We spent a good deal of time watching the sprayer assembly line.  The "factory" was clean and orderly.  The whole area was under roof and climate controlled.  Tour guides told us that all sprayers on the line were sold.  They said that John Deere keeps no inventory of any farm equipment.  No photography was allowed in the assembly line area.

Subject matter experts discussed "new" products available for maybe 3 hours.  We learned about a high capacity nutrient applicator, row guidance for sprayers, Starfire GPS receivers, and Maxemerge row units.

Of interest to me was the number of partnerships and cooperative agreements and joint ventures they discussed.

After a break, we went outdoors for some parking lot demonstrations and too look at some historic equipment.  I will share more about the equipment tomorrow.  We were able to mingle with the subject matter experts and ask individual quests during a reception and dinner. It was certainly an interesting adventure.

Monday, August 29, 2016

Soybean Problem Area

Great looking field of soybeans except for this one little problem.  

Saturday, August 27, 2016

Monroe County Harvest

Several people are harvesting corn in Monroe County.  Some varieties are lodging badly.  Corn is mature.  No yield report.

Friday, August 26, 2016

Degree Day Calculator

Living plants and plant pests develop according to degree days.  A calendar does not provide an accurate forecast for scouting for various pests.  University  of Illinois has developed a degree day calculator to help farmers determine when to look for various insects and diseases.  It is kind of late for this year, but the calculator might be a good tool for next year.  Keep in mind that degree days will vary field to field, so it is best to have temperature readings close by.

Wednesday, August 24, 2016

Montgomery County Yield Survey Results

The Montgomery County Yield Survey is complete for 2016.  The survey is usually pretty close on countywide yields.  Two points are surveyed per township.  Township results my show a trend, but they are not all that accurate.  Check it out.  I think that many will be surprised at how low some of them are, but a dry June reduced yields in some fields and on some varieties.  190 bushel corn is not bad.  I think some were expecting more.

Tuesday, August 23, 2016

Corn maturing fast

I went to St. Charles County Missouri today to deliver recommendations.  The Illinois leg of the trip showed very little mature corn. In Missouri however, I estimate 25 to 30 % of the corn is mature.  Clients are planning to start harvest next week.  Yields are expected to be variable.

Monday, August 22, 2016

Corn Harvest Started

I have reports out of Monroe County that corn harvest is underway.  I am sure it is not dry corn.  Also saw a facebook post that silage is being chopped.  I know that is not the same as corn for grain, but the time is upon us.  I have not seen much corn that is even black layered, but I know the corn being harvested to the south was planted in March, so it is probably mature.  Montgomery County Extension is hosting their annual yield tour on Wednesday.  I am eagerly awaiting their reports.

Sunday, August 21, 2016

Sources of Palmer Amaranth in the Midwest

It is a really bad year for Waterhemp in our area.  Palmer Amaranth is closely related, and vigilance is needed to keep it under control.  Beware of sources that may bring seeds to your area.  I have seen Palmer Amaranth in Bond County that came in Cottonseed dairy feed products.  The seed runs through the cow and you spread it on your fields.  Another source may be CRP seed.  This article out of Ohio from No-Till Farmer suggests screening CRP mixes to get rid of Palmer Amaranth. I have heard reports of dirty seed out of Iowa as well.  Also, be sure clean harvest equipment when moving from infested fields.  University of Arkansas is suggesting the only way to control Palmer Amaranth is total eradication.

Thursday, August 18, 2016

Weedy Soybeans

Lots of soybeans are getting weedy.  I am not sure of herbicide program in these fields, but the bottom two fields missed the mark.  The top photo shows fairly clean beans.  Only a few stalks of corn are poking through.  The beans in the middle photo look pretty good over all , but there was a conspicuous gap in spray coverage.  The bottom photo shows a field where late season weed control is not good.  Last week on the way to Kentucky, I noticed weeds especially bad in the middles of 30 inch rows.  I could not find that today. Probably 80 to 90% of the weeds are waterhemp.
Fairly clean

Sprayer Gap in  the Middle


Wednesday, August 17, 2016

Green Clover Worm Moths

The last few days we have been seeing lots of green clover worm moths. They are dark gray in our area, but other colors are out there too.  Thanks to Stephanie Porter and Kelly Estes for helping with identification.  The one below is not pretty because I smashed him a bit to take the pic.  Purdue University gives advice on scouting and economic thresholds.  I our area, it may be worth a look in your fields judging from the number of moths I am seeing.  As with many insects, the worms are the problem.  The moths just show potential.  Kelly Estes shared an article from 1998 that says in general they are more of a nuisance than problem.

Tuesday, August 16, 2016

Enjoying Kentucky Ag Products

Our annual consultants meeting was in Lexington Kentucky.  It is located in Bluegrass Country and is a beautiful part of the state.  There are also several bourbon distilleries in the area.  We toured Four Roses Distillery and Woodford Reserve Distillery.  Actually Four Roses does not use andy Kentucky farm products.  They get their corn from Indiana and Rye and Barley from other states. Woodford Reserve uses Kentucky corn, but rye and barley from other states.  At Four Roses, we were not able to see the process in person, because of active construction to allow expansion.  The staff was very hospitable.  Both distilleries had a tasting room to sample the products.  The Photos below are all from Woodford Reserve Distillery.   The basics are the same.  Bourbon is made from at least 51% corn mash and must be aged in charred Oak Barrels.  Each individual distillery adds character to their products in different ways that create subtle little differences.
Woodford Reserve Fermentation Building Notice the Millstone
Fermenting Mash
Distilling Room
Aging warehouse

Bottling Room

Tasting the Results